Superficial facial nerves medical illustration by Dr Ciléin Kearns (artibiotics)

I’m Dr Ciléin Kearns, a Medical Illustrator exploring health & disease with art.

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Causes of blood in the urine (haematuria)

Causes of blood in the urine (haematuria)

Further to my article on reading urine colour, I felt like I should explore the important clinical sign of haematuria (blood in the urine) in more detail. This can be frightening for a patient to experience, and clinically important to detect early.

Haematuria may be macroscopic (visible to the naked eye), or microscopic (invisible to the eye but detectable on a test). Doctors divide causes anatomically, into pre-renal, renal, and post-renal (before, at, and after the kidneys). Let's explore these visually:

(Print-your-own poster and phone optimised PDF's are available here)

Here's some close up shots of the illustrations for those using smaller screens:

Pre-renal haematuria by Dr Ciléin Kearns (artibiotics)
False haematuria causes by Dr Ciléin Kearns
Renal causes of haematuria by Dr Ciléin Kearns (artibiotics)
UTI by Dr Ciléin Kearns (artibiotics)
Gynaecology causes of haematuria by Dr Ciléin Kearns (artibiotics)

In Conclusion,

I felt this symptom was best covered visually, and so poured my heart into illustrating what's normally conveyed as a bullet point list, or blocks of prose. If you found this helpful, please share on social media to get the word out and help others too. Follow and subscribe to artibiotics to catch more in my medical mentalism series on the art of health deduction.

You can get a digital print-your-own poster and phone optimised PDF here to support my work on artibiotics. Catch you next time!

Causes of haematuria print-your-own poster

Print-your-own posters, and keep a handy reference on your phone to the “causes of haematuria” with this digital PDF pack.


  • Print-your-own A4 poster (PDF)

  • Phone optimised poster

This illustrated breakdown of pre-renal, renal, and post renal, causes of haematuria is a useful anatomical way to approach this important symptom. For personal use only.

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